In einem Raumbuch werden für jeden Raum alle Leistungen genau beschrieben, die die ausführenden Handwerker erbringen und gewährleisten sollen.
"Geheimhaltungsvereinbarung" English translation
In either event, an ill-planned project may then constitute, at least for a time and in a particular forum, a bar to further productive work. For these reasons, the question of whether any limits should be placed on the initiation of the multilateral treaty-making process was one of those most intensively explored by the General Assembly in its above-mentioned review exercise.
In the end the Assembly refrained from establishing or even endorsing any explicit restraints, as allegedly incompatible with the sovereign right of any state to introduce proposals in any international organ in which it participates. Nevertheless, the General Assembly in effect appealed to states to show self-restraint in initiating proposals of this type, and by indicating the criteria by which IGO organs should study such proposals it at least implied that those that do not measure up should be rejected.
In this connection it should be pointed out that one distinctive feature of the international legislative process, compared to municipal ones, is its highly decentralized and consequently at best poorly coordinated nature.
Competence to deal with particular questions, such as environmental ones, may exist simultaneously in political organizations such as, on the worldwide level, the United Nations, and, on regional ones, the Organization of American States OAS or the Organization of African Unity OAU , in certain technically oriented specialized agencies on the worldwide or the regional level, in specialized worldwide e. Which of these chooses to initiate a particular project may thus depend on chance, on the aggressiveness of an executive head, or on obscure political considerations that lead interested states to approach a particular institution.
Though the UN General Assembly can of course issue directives to its own subsidiary organs and those of the Economic and Social Council ECOSOC , in respect of specialized agencies it can only issue recommendations, which the latter are obliged to duly consider, while independent regional organizations are not even under such a gentle restraint.
Though within the UN system there are coordinating organs, such as the Administrative Committee on Co-ordination ACC , these operate primarily on the inter-secretariat level and therefore can influence the political organs only indirectly by facilitating the flow of information about what activities are underway or planned in the various organizations participating in the system.
Once a competent IGO organ decides formally to initiate the process of formulating a multilateral law-making treaty - or, for that matter, some other type of norm-establishing instrument - the second major stage in the international legislative process commences. This stage, in turn, consists of a number of steps, which, however, do not necessarily follow each other in a neat sequence but may overlap, iterate, in part be omitted, and in any event be structured in many different ways.
All that is possible is to give a general description of the purpose and preferred means of executing each of these steps, on the understanding that the actual process may differ in respect of any given exercise, driven either ad hoc by the internal dynamics of the particular process or by certain more or less rigid schedules that may be characteristic of a particular organ such as the International Law Commission, the ILC or organization such as ILO.
Depending on what studies were carried out before the project was first proposed or in any event as part of the decision to initiate it, it may or may not be necessary to carry out further investigations before beginning to formulate the instrument. Such studies may deal, especially in respect of proposed environmental instruments, with scientific or technical matters, or with the current state of national and international activities and laws in the area. As to how any necessary studies are carried out, this depends in part on their nature and in part on the usages of the IGO concerned.
Often this task is assigned to the organization's secretariat, which can either perform it with its own resources, with specially engaged staff especially if the exercise is a large-scale one - such as the Third UN Conference on the Law of the Sea, UNCLOS III , or with consultants.
Another favoured approach is to convene expert groups, the members of which are either appointed by the executive head of the lGO who is likely to do so on the basis of governmental recommendations and will in any event take into account various political balances or by particular states interested in and able to participate in the project. Finally, the task may be carried out by a particular subsidiary organ of the sponsoring IGO, especially if such organ has itself an expert character such as ILC.
Perhaps no other step can be carried out in so many different ways as the preparation of the initial draft of a proposed norm-creating instrument.
Sometimes a draft is submitted by the initiating state as part of its first proposal of the project - though, unless such submission is preceded by careful albeit informal consultations, it is likely to create suspicions and even a backlash. Sometimes the preparation of such a draft is assigned to the organ charged with preparing the above-mentioned initial studies and constitutes part of its report.
Lastly, the draft may be prepared in the negotiating forum see next subheading by a specially assigned rapporteur, a working group, or the secretariat, or simply evolve gradually out of the consideration of the subject. Rather than starting with a complete draft text, with each of at least the substantive provisions spelled out completely, even if only tentatively, it is sometimes found preferable to start with only "heads of agreement," i.
In any event, the so-called "formal" or "final clauses" are often omitted entirely at this stage, unless some aspect of them e. The most difficult and generally the longest substage in formulating a new instrument is that required to negotiate its terms and text. It is this part of the process that is most clearly political, in that it involves the mediation of the various interests concerned: The need for such negotiations naturally informs the entire legislative process - indeed, it is one of the reasons why that term is appropriate, for the negotiations required to formulate international laws may differ in scope but not in any other essential respect from those required for national or even local laws.
Often negotiation starts before the treaty-formulating process has been formally initiated, in that the initiator may consult with leading states before ever introducing a proposal. The considerations involved in whether to initiate the process may also already involve advance decisions as to substance and form, which may be reflected in the terms of the IGO resolution approving the start of the process 10 and also in the choice of or in the composition of any ad hoc organs whether expert or representative mandated to carry out or to assist in the formulating process.
Though in principle the negotiations culminate in the decision on the adoption of the proposed instrument, in practice they may continue as they have in respect of UNCLOS and especially the protection of the ozone layer 11 even into the post-adoption period.
Naturally, the preferred organ for carrying out negotiations is a representative one, that is an organ consisting of the instructed representatives of states. If the sponsoring IGO is a worldwide or large regional one, then most often the designated organ is a restricted one, that is not a plenary one in which all IGO members are represented. A standing restricted organ such as the member UNEP Council or the governing organ of a specialized agency always has a balanced composition considered appropriate for the general business of the IGO 12 if the task is assigned to an ad hoc organ, then the agreement about its composition may constitute, as pointed out above, one of the initial manoeuvres in the negotiating process.
However, it should be understood that even if certain steps in formulating an instrument are assigned to an expert organ, the latter is likely to function, in effect, as a negotiating forum. Although the negotiations are normally carried out by persons formally designated as state representatives, such as the members of IGO organs, it has become more and more customary to permit a certain participation to the representatives of non-official organizations, in particular of NGOs.
It is this device that increasingly permits the interested public, i. This is a most significant and relatively recent development, which is particularly important in the environmental field, where a number of well-financed and knowledgeable NGOs including, of course, those established by interested business and industrial councils operate and consider their participation in international norm-making to be a major aspect of their work.
The international legislative process is, in spite of the increasingly frequent but still peripheral involvement of ad personam experts and of NGOs, primarily a dialogue among governments, carried out by their designated representatives for the most part in IGO organs. Thus, in a sense, governments, at least the principal ones, are technically always up to date with the state of progress of any given legislative project.
Nevertheless, especially since the bulk of this work is normally carried out in low-profile IGO organs with restricted membership, it is useful for many governments, and especially for the majority not represented on such organs, to receive periodic progress reports and in particular to be given an opportunity to make a direct input. This may be accomplished in several ways, but two are the most usual. Organs with restricted membership, whether or not these are constitutional principal organs i e.
In reporting on a legislative project, they may, depending on the custom of the organization, report in greater or lesser detail, ranging from a mere statement that work is continuing, to transmission of the texts of the latest draft, perhaps indicating areas of disagreement often by the use of square brackets to designate disputed or alternative texts , or even the submission of summary or verbatim records of the relevant debates.
The culmination of such a discussion may be a specific resolution asking that the legislative exercise proceed in a certain way or take into account certain points, or it may merely result in the relevant records of the plenary organ being transmitted to the junior organ for its information as reflecting the reaction of a larger circle of governments.
An alternative method is to inform the governments of member states directly about the progress of the legislative project, usually through communications addressed to them individually by the executive head of the IGO. Such communications may be required by the mandate of the formulating organ to be made at certain stages of the work e. In many instances the communication will request that reactions to the report, and sometimes answers to specific questions, be communicated within specified deadlines to the executive head for transmission to the organ concerned.
This process, which is not likely to be undertaken routinely or frequently, gives an opportunity to all potential parties to the instrument under consideration, and especially to those not otherwise represented, to communicate their considered and detailed views as to all questions at issue. Although, as just pointed out, provision is frequently made in the international legislative process for formal consultations with governments, the same is rarely if ever true in respect of consultations with other entities, i.
Nevertheless, as multilateral treaty-making is generally carried out in the open, i. This process is, of course, at best unsystematic and often ineffective, in particular in respect of the views of those who do not happen to be citizens of an advanced democratic country.
And even in those, certain categories of persons are traditionally politically powerless. Nor are the interests of future generations systematically protected, but only insofar as certain articulate and sensitive individuals or groups take account of them. When it is judged by the competent organ which may be the one charged with the formulation of the proposed treaty instrument or the plenary organ to which it reports that the process of treaty formulation is complete or at least that it has progressed as far as it can at that stage, a decision as to its adoption must be taken.
One possible decision of course is that the instrument under consideration should not be adopted, either at all or at the current time. If it seems otiose to return it to the formulating organ, the project may be put into indefinite abeyance or may be terminated entirely, for example if a change in circumstances, such as the formulation of a similar instrument in some other forum, makes it pointless to proceed. If, however, as is usually the case, the prospects of a carefully elaborated treaty do not appear to be entirely unpromising, a number of further decisions must be taken.
If it is decided to move to adoption, the forum in which this should occur must be designated. In some instances that decision is predetermined by the constitution or practices of the IGO, which may dictate a particular procedure.
Thus, if there is no standing organ that fulfils that specification e. The adopting forum must, at the end of its work, be able to approve the texts of one or more instruments to be then submitted for formal action by states. In effect, therefore, it must complete whatever the formulating organ has not, since the work of the two organs is complementary - indeed, in certain situations one organ can perform both sets of tasks.
The final product of the adopting forum will, particularly if it is an ad hoc conference, consist of one or more instruments meant for action by states which instruments may include several coordinated treaties or a principal treaty and subordinated protocols , of resolutions presenting the collective views of the adopting forum, and of a Final Act that pulls all of these together and supplies or refers to a sufficient record to put the entire exercise into context and to permit differing views to be formally preserved, whether for political or for eventual legal reasons.
All the fore so far referred to, but particularly the adopting one, must take a series of decisions in advancing the legislative process and especially in completing each stage thereof.
In principle all these decisions can be taken by votes, but in practice increasingly more of them are taken without that formality - which again is a feature in which the international differs from the municipal legislative process.
The gradual decrease in the amount of voting in international organs is by no means a casual phenomenon. The one-nation-one-vote rule is increasingly recognized as being entirely unrealistic, by pretending to equate in this single respect the influence of individual states that differ drastically in all others: However, since on the one hand there was no immediate possibility of changing this rule which has been incorporated into most international constitutional instruments and is even considered by many as constituting one of the basic principles of international organization law while on the other the more powerful states are steadily more reluctant to subject themselves to this artificial type of "majority rule," it has become necessary in order to ensure the continued participation of these states in important political processes to avoid voting as much as possible.
This avoidance is most frequently expressed as an attempt to attain "consensus" or "general agreement. In the first instance it would appear that this development represents a giant step backwards, in effect to the League of Nations, whose principal organs operated on the unanimity principle and thus were rarely able to take effective action. Indeed, the need to obtain consensus is likely on the one hand to be time-consuming, for progress can be held up almost indefinitely by any participant, and on the other to tend to reduce the content of substantive decisions to no more than just the low highest common denominator 21 on which general agreement can be reached.
There are, however, some mitigating factors. This is made possible by the new. Can you do more? This code fix will allow a developer using your analyzer to not just find an error in his code—he can also clean it up instantly.
The fix will be added as an item in the light bulb menu, letting the user preview the fix and apply it to her code automatically. In that article, I showed you how to write the first half of your analyzer, which generates the diagnostic squiggles under each invalid regex pattern string.
That article walked you through:. Last time, when you wrote the diagnostic analyzer to detect invalid regex patterns, the first step was to use the Syntax Visualizer to identify patterns in the syntax trees that indicated problem code.
You then wrote an analysis method that ran each time the relevant node type was found. The method checked for the pattern of syntax nodes that warranted an error squiggle. Writing a fix is a similar process. You deal in syntax trees, focusing on the desired new state of the code files after the user applies your fix.
Most code fixes involve adding, removing or replacing syntax nodes from the current trees to produce new syntax trees. You can operate directly on syntax nodes or use APIs that let you make project-wide changes, such as renames.
One very important property to understand about the syntax nodes, trees and symbols in the. Immutability in an API for transforming source code may seem counterintuitive. How can you add, remove and replace the child nodes in a syntax tree if neither the tree nor its nodes can be changed?
NET String type, another immutable type you use most likely every day. You perform operations to transform strings quite often, concatenating them together and even replacing substrings using String.
However, none of these operations actually change the original string object. Instead, each call returns a new string object that represents the new state of the string. You can assign this new object back to your original variable, but any method you passed the old string to will still have the original value. Inside Visual Studio with the Syntax Visualizer tool installed, see previous article , create a new C code file. Replace all of its contents with the following code:.
Open up the Syntax Visualizer by choosing View Other Windows Syntax Visualizer and click anywhere within the code file to populate the tree. Visualizing this syntax tree results in a graph like the one in Figure 2 the graph shown here omits the gray and white trivia nodes that represent whitespace.
Figure 2 Syntax Tree Before the Transform. Note that even before you finish typing, when your incomplete code contains compile errors shown in the Syntax Visualizer as nodes with a red background , the tree is still coherent, and the compiler guesses that your new code will form a valid Parameter node.
This resilience of the syntax trees to compiler errors is what allows IDE features and your diagnostics to work well against incomplete code.
Right-click on the root CompilationUnit node again and generate a new graph, which should look like Figure 3 again, depicted here without trivia. Figure 3 Syntax Tree After the Transform. Note that the ParameterList now has three children, the two parenthesis tokens it had before, plus a new Parameter syntax node. Performing a full replacement works well enough for small strings, which are single objects, but what about syntax trees?
That would generate tons of orphaned objects for the garbage collector to clean up and seriously hurt performance. Luckily, the immutable nature of the syntax nodes also provides the escape here. This node reuse means that the only nodes in a tree that need to be recreated on each keystroke are those with at least one descendant that has changed, namely the narrow chain of ancestor nodes up to the root, as depicted in Figure 4.
All other nodes are reused as is. In this case, the core change is to create your new Parameter node and then replace the ParameterList with a new ParameterList that has the new Parameter inserted as a child node. ReplaceNode method, which takes care of replacing all the ancestor nodes for you. You start with code in the before state that triggers the diagnostic. Then you manually make the changes the fix should make, observing the effect on the syntax tree.
Finally, you work out the code needed to create the replacement nodes and return a new syntax tree that contains them. Fixes and the diagnostics they resolve are loosely coupled by diagnostic IDs. Each code fix targets one or more diagnostic IDs.
Whenever Visual Studio sees a diagnostic with a matching ID, it will ask your code fix provider if you have code fixes to offer. In this case, your analyzer produces both the diagnostic and the code fix. The RegisterCodeFixesAsync method is the main driver for the code fix. This method is called whenever one or more matching Diagnostics are found for a given span of code.
The next line then searches up the syntax tree from that span to find the nearest type declaration node. In your case, the diagnostic analyzer you wrote was looking for invocations to see if they were calls to Regex. You now have a reference to the same invocation node with which the diagnostic analyzer started. Rename that method from MakeUppercaseAsync to FixRegexAsync, update the title string to "Fix regex" and use this string for the fix description and equivalenceKeyt:.
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