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The requirements relating to integrity contribute to a sound and reliable insurance sector and to the objective of the adequate protection of policyholders. In developing such technologies, our research has used multi-species ethnography and participatory design to develop a system that enables assistance dogs to call for help on behalf of their vulnerable owners in an emergency. Time limit for transposition of amending Directives. Accordingly, registration with their home Member State should allow insurance, reinsurance and ancillary insurance intermediaries to operate in other Member States in accordance with the principles of freedom of establishment and freedom to provide services, provided that appropriate notification procedures have been followed between the competent authorities.

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These differences exist between different traditions of Buddhism. They are also reflected in how mindfulness is understood and defined in its secular reincarnation as a clinical intervention and as an area of scientific research. We would also expect different neural dynamics between the beginners and experts of mindfulness practice.

Based on the research done by others and myself, I will map what these neural dynamics might be. Finally, I will relate the effects of mindfulness on brain functional dynamics to the trans-diagnostic efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions. Her main research interest is the neuroscience of mindfulness using psychophysiology and neuroimaging methods with the application to the prevention and management of psychosis and schizophrenia.

Dr Antonova held Templeton Positive Neuroscience Award between for the project investigating the effect of mindful attention on sensory information processing in expert mindfulness practitioners http: She has been actively involved with the Mind and Life Institute https: It means mind, including the idea of a disembodied mind, but it is also closely tied to life. I discuss whether Ryle was right about dualism being a category error and about whether the mind is no more than what the brain does, as US cognitive scientist, Marvin Minsky, later phrased it.

I consider that mind may be one of the things the brain does, but that our current understanding of the physical structure and function of the brain is insufficient to explain key aspects of mind consciousness such as qualia, personhood, personal identity, intentionality and free will. I further point out that epiphenomenalism ie the mind simply being a product of brain function fails to explain how the mind can use the brain to report back on its conscious experiences so-called access consciousness by Ned Block.

I then turn my attention to attempt to undermine the common concept of the physical. I begin by looking at the implications of the atomic and molecular structure of matter and for example, what constitutes solidity and conclude that even with a classical chemical and physical understanding matter, it appears to be no more than sets of rules attached to concentrations of energy.

Next, I invoke quantum mechanics to undermine even this concept of matter, pointing out that fundamental particles only exist as probability distributions, thus only as potential entities and not real entities in time and space.

Penultimately, I point out that all the macro-properties of the physical solidity, liquidity, transparency, temperature, position, size, number, shape, velocity are ideas in our minds based on how physical entities interact with our human bodies and their sense organs. Redirected from Rem unit. This article is about the CGS unit of equivalent dose.

For the historical equivalent of modern kerma , see roentgen unit. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved December 18, Annals of the ICRP. Retrieved 17 May Risks and Realities" PDF. Retrieved 23 May In the United States, we measure radiation doses in units called rem. Under the metric system, dose is measured in units called sieverts. One sievert is equal to rem. National Bureau of Standards Handbook. US Department of Commerce.

Retrieved 14 November National Institute of Standards and Technology. Archived from the original on 12 June Retrieved 28 November Retrieved 9 May Retrieved 18 May As regards ancillary insurance intermediaries, Member States shall ensure that the persons responsible for ancillary insurance distribution fulfil the requirement referred to in the first subparagraph.

Member States shall require that ancillary insurance intermediaries hold professional indemnity insurance or comparable guarantees at a level established by Member States taking into account the nature of the products sold and the activity carried out. Member States shall take all necessary measures to protect customers against the inability of the insurance, reinsurance or ancillary insurance intermediary to transfer the premium to the insurance undertaking or to transfer the amount of claim or return premium to the insured.

Insurance and reinsurance undertakings shall identify a function to ensure the proper implementation of the endorsed policies and procedures.

Insurance and reinsurance undertakings shall, upon request, make available the name of the person responsible for that function to the home Member State competent authority. A Member State which proposes to apply and applies provisions regulating insurance distribution in addition to those set out in this Directive shall ensure that the administrative burden stemming from those provisions is proportionate with regard to consumer protection.

The Member State shall continue to monitor those provisions to ensure they remain in conformity with this paragraph. Such a point of contact should be an appropriate competent authority.

Member States shall designate the competent authorities empowered to ensure implementation of this Directive.

They shall inform the Commission thereof, indicating any division of those duties. The competent authorities shall possess all the powers necessary for the performance of their duties under this Directive. Where there is more than one competent authority on its territory, a Member State shall ensure that those authorities collaborate closely so that they can discharge their respective duties effectively.

Cooperation and exchange of information between the competent authorities of Member States. The competent authorities of different Member States shall cooperate among themselves and exchange any relevant information on insurance and reinsurance distributors in order to ensure the proper application of this Directive.

In particular, in the process of registration and on an ongoing basis, the competent authorities shall share relevant information concerning the good repute, the professional knowledge and the competence of insurance and reinsurance distributors.

Member States shall ensure that procedures are set up which allow customers and other interested parties, especially consumer associations, to register complaints about insurance and reinsurance distributors.

In all cases, complainants shall receive replies. Member States shall ensure that adequate and effective, impartial and independent out-of-court complaint and redress procedures for the settlement of disputes between customers and insurance distributors concerning the rights and obligations arising under this Directive are established in accordance with the relevant Union legislative acts and national law, using existing bodies where appropriate.

Member States shall ensure that, when carrying out insurance distribution, insurance distributors always act honestly, fairly and professionally in accordance with the best interests of their customers. Marketing communications shall always be clearly identifiable as such. Member States shall ensure that insurance distributors are not remunerated or do not remunerate or assess the performance of their employees in a way that conflicts with their duty to act in accordance with the best interests of their customers.

General information provided by the insurance intermediary or insurance undertaking. Member States shall ensure that in good time before the conclusion of an insurance contract, an insurance intermediary provides the customer with at least the following information:.

Where the fee is payable directly by the customer, the insurance intermediary shall inform the customer of the amount of the fee or, where that is not possible, of the method for calculating the fee.

If any payments, other than the ongoing premiums and scheduled payments, are made by the customer under the insurance contract after its conclusion, the insurance intermediary shall also make the disclosures in accordance with this Article for each such payment. Member States shall ensure that in good time before the conclusion of an insurance contract, an insurance undertaking communicates to its customer the nature of the remuneration received by its employees in relation to the insurance contract.

If any payments, other than the ongoing premiums and scheduled payments, are made by the customer under the insurance contract after its conclusion, the insurance undertaking shall also make the disclosures in accordance with this Article for each such payment. Prior to the conclusion of an insurance contract, the insurance distributor shall specify, on the basis of information obtained from the customer, the demands and the needs of that customer and shall provide the customer with objective information about the insurance product in a comprehensible form to allow that customer to make an informed decision.

Member States may stipulate that the insurance product information document is to be provided together with information required pursuant to other relevant Union legislative acts or national law on the condition that all the requirements set out in the first subparagraph are met.

The insurance product information document shall contain the following information:. Member States may maintain or adopt stricter provisions regarding the information requirements referred to in this Chapter provided that such provisions comply with Union law. Member States shall also take the necessary steps to ensure appropriate publication by their competent authorities of the information about whether and how the Member State has chosen to apply stricter provisions under this paragraph.

In such a case, such stricter national provisions shall be complied with by insurance distributors, including those operating under the freedom to provide services or the freedom of establishment, when concluding insurance contracts with customers having their habitual residence or establishment in that Member State.

Member States may limit or prohibit the acceptance or receipt of fees, commissions or other monetary or non-monetary benefits paid or provided to insurance distributors by any third party, or a person acting on behalf of a third party, in relation to the distribution of insurance products. In order to establish a high level of transparency by all appropriate means, EIOPA shall ensure that the information it receives relating to national provisions is also communicated to customers, and to insurance and reinsurance distributors.

Member States shall ensure that where the insurance distributor is responsible for the provision of mandatory occupational pension arrangements and an employee becomes a member of such an arrangement without having taken an individual decision to join it, the information referred to in this Chapter shall be provided to the employee promptly after their enrolment in the arrangement concerned.

The provision by the customer of an e-mail address for the purposes of that business shall be regarded as such evidence. In the case of telephone selling, the information given to the customer by the insurance distributor prior to the conclusion of the contract, including the insurance product information document, shall be provided in accordance with Union rules applicable to the distance marketing of consumer financial services.

When an insurance product is offered together with an ancillary product or service which is not insurance, as part of a package or the same agreement, the insurance distributor shall inform the customer whether it is possible to buy the different components separately and, if so, shall provide an adequate description of the different components of the agreement or package as well as separate evidence of the costs and charges of each component. Where an insurance product is ancillary to a good or a service which is not insurance, as part of a package or the same agreement, the insurance distributor shall offer the customer the possibility of buying the good or service separately.

This Article shall not prevent the distribution of insurance products which provide coverage for various types of risks multi-risk insurance policies. Member States may maintain or adopt additional stricter measures or intervene on a case-by-case basis to prohibit the sale of insurance together with an ancillary service or product which is not insurance, as part of a package or the same agreement, when they can demonstrate that such practices are detrimental to consumers.

Insurance undertakings, as well as intermediaries which manufacture any insurance product for sale to customers, shall maintain, operate and review a process for the approval of each insurance product, or significant adaptations of an existing insurance product, before it is marketed or distributed to customers.

The product approval process shall be proportionate and appropriate to the nature of the insurance product.

The product approval process shall specify an identified target market for each product, ensure that all relevant risks to such identified target market are assessed and that the intended distribution strategy is consistent with the identified target market, and take reasonable steps to ensure that the insurance product is distributed to the identified target market.

The insurance undertaking shall understand and regularly review the insurance products it offers or markets, taking into account any event that could materially affect the potential risk to the identified target market, to assess at least whether the product remains consistent with the needs of the identified target market and whether the intended distribution strategy remains appropriate.

Insurance undertakings, as well as intermediaries which manufacture insurance products, shall make available to distributors all appropriate information on the insurance product and the product approval process, including the identified target market of the insurance product. Where an insurance distributor advises on, or proposes, insurance products which it does not manufacture, it shall have in place adequate arrangements to obtain the information referred to in the fifth subparagraph and to understand the characteristics and identified target market of each insurance product.

The policies, processes and arrangements referred to in this Article shall be without prejudice to all other requirements under this Directive including those relating to disclosure, suitability or appropriateness, identification and management of conflicts of interest, and inducements.

This Article shall not apply to insurance products which consist of the insurance of large risks. Those arrangements shall be proportionate to the activities performed, the insurance products sold and the type of the distributor. Member States shall ensure that insurance intermediaries and insurance undertakings take all appropriate steps to identify conflicts of interest between themselves, including their managers and employees, or any person directly or indirectly linked to them by control, and their customers or between one customer and another, that arise in the course of carrying out any insurance distribution activities.

That information shall include at least the following:. The information about all costs and charges, including costs and charges in connection with the distribution of the insurance-based investment product, which are not caused by the occurrence of underlying market risk, shall be in aggregated form to allow the customer to understand the overall cost as well as the cumulative effect on the return of the investment, and, where the customer so requests, an itemised breakdown of the costs and charges shall be provided.

Where applicable, such information shall be provided to the customer on a regular basis, at least annually, during the life cycle of the investment.

The information referred to in this paragraph shall be provided in a comprehensible form in such a manner that customers or potential customers are reasonably able to understand the nature and risks concerning the insurance-based investment product offered and, consequently, to take investment decisions on an informed basis. Member States may allow that information to be provided in a standardised format.

Member States may impose stricter requirements on distributors in respect of the matters covered by this Article. In particular, Member States may additionally prohibit or further restrict the offer or acceptance of fees, commissions or non-monetary benefits from third parties in relation to the provision of insurance advice.

Stricter requirements may include requiring any such fees, commissions or non-monetary benefits to be returned to the clients or offset against fees paid by the client. The stricter requirements of a Member State referred to in this paragraph have to be complied with by all insurance intermediaries or insurance undertakings, including those operating under the freedom to provide services or the freedom of establishment, when concluding insurance contracts with customers having their habitual residence or establishment in that Member State.

Where the insurance intermediary or insurance undertaking considers, on the basis of the information received under the first subparagraph, that the product is not appropriate for the customer or potential customer, the insurance intermediary or insurance undertaking shall warn the customer or potential customer to that effect.

That warning may be provided in a standardised format. Where customers or potential customers do not provide the information referred to in the first subparagraph, or where they provide insufficient information regarding their knowledge and experience, the insurance intermediary or insurance undertaking shall warn them that it is not in a position to determine whether the product envisaged is appropriate for them.

Such a warning may be provided in a standardised format;. All insurance intermediaries or insurance undertakings, including those operating under the freedom to provide services or the freedom of establishment, when concluding insurance contracts with customers having their habitual residence or establishment in a Member State which does not make use of the derogation referred to in this paragraph shall comply with the applicable provisions in that Member State.

The insurance intermediary or insurance undertaking shall establish a record that includes the document or documents agreed between the insurance intermediary or insurance undertaking and the customer that set out the rights and obligations of the parties, and the other terms on which the insurance intermediary or insurance undertaking will provide services to the customer.

The rights and duties of the parties to the contract may be incorporated by reference to other documents or legal texts. The insurance intermediary or insurance undertaking shall provide the customer with adequate reports on the service provided on a durable medium.

Those reports shall include periodic communications to customers, taking into account the type and the complexity of insurance-based investment products involved and the nature of the service provided to the customer and shall include, where applicable, the costs associated with the transactions and services undertaken on behalf of the customer.

When providing advice on an insurance-based investment product, the insurance intermediary or the insurance undertaking shall, prior to the conclusion of the contract, provide the customer with a suitability statement on a durable medium specifying the advice given and how that advice meets the preferences, objectives and other characteristics of the customer.

Where the contract is concluded using a means of distance communication which prevents the prior delivery of the suitability statement, the insurance intermediary or the insurance undertaking may provide the suitability statement on a durable medium immediately after the customer is bound by any contract, provided both of the following conditions are met:. Those delegated acts shall take into account:. Without prejudice to the supervisory powers of competent authorities and the right of Member States to provide for and impose criminal sanctions, Member States shall ensure that their competent authorities may impose administrative sanctions and other measures applicable to all infringements of the national provisions implementing this Directive, and shall take all measures necessary to ensure that they are implemented.

Member States shall ensure that their administrative sanctions and other measures are effective, proportionate and dissuasive. Member States may decide not to lay down rules on administrative sanctions under this Directive for infringements which are subject to criminal sanctions under their national law.

In that case, Member States shall communicate to the Commission the relevant criminal law provisions. Competent authorities shall exercise their supervisory powers, including investigatory powers and powers to impose sanctions provided for in this Chapter, in accordance with their national legal frameworks in any of the following ways:.

Member States shall ensure that where obligations apply to insurance or reinsurance distributors, in the event of a breach of any such obligation, administrative sanctions against, and other measures with regard to, the members of their management or supervisory body, and any other natural or legal persons who, under national law, are responsible for such breach, can be applied.

Member States shall ensure that administrative sanctions and other measures taken in accordance with this Article are subject to a right of appeal. The competent authorities shall be given all investigatory powers that are necessary for the exercise of their functions.

Member States shall ensure that the competent authorities publish any administrative sanction or other measure that has been imposed for breaches of the national provisions implementing this Directive and against which no appeal was lodged in time, without undue delay, including information on the type and nature of the breach and the identity of persons responsible for it.

However, where the publication of the identity of the legal persons, or identity or personal data of natural persons, is considered by the competent authority to be disproportionate following a case-by-case assessment conducted on the proportionality of the publication of such data or where publication jeopardises the stability of financial markets or an ongoing investigation, the competent authority may decide to defer publication, not to publish, or to publish the sanctions on an anonymous basis.

Where national law provides for the publication of a decision to impose a sanction or other measure which is subject to an appeal before the relevant judicial or other authorities, the competent authorities shall publish on their official website, without undue delay, such information and any subsequent information on the outcome of such appeal.

Moreover, any decision annulling a previous decision to impose a sanction or other measure which has been published shall also be published. Member States may empower competent authorities to provide for additional sanctions or other measures and for levels of administrative pecuniary sanctions which are higher than those provided for in this Article. Member States shall ensure that when determining the type of administrative sanctions or other measures and the level of administrative pecuniary sanctions, the competent authorities take into account all relevant circumstances, including where appropriate:.

Member States shall ensure that the competent authorities establish effective mechanisms to enable and encourage the reporting to them of possible or actual breaches of national provisions implementing this Directive.

Where the competent authority has disclosed an administrative sanction or other measure to the public, it shall at the same time report that fact to EIOPA. The power to adopt delegated acts is conferred on the Commission subject to the conditions laid down in this Article. A decision of revocation shall put an end to the delegation of the power specified in that decision. It shall take effect the day following the publication of the decision in the Official Journal of the European Union or at a later date specified therein.

It shall not affect the validity of any delegated acts already in force. As soon as it adopts a delegated act, the Commission shall notify it simultaneously to the European Parliament and to the Council. That period shall be extended by three months at the initiative of the European Parliament or of the Council. By 23 February , the Commission shall review this Directive.

By 23 February , and at least every two years thereafter, EIOPA shall prepare a further report on the application of this Directive. Member States shall bring into force the laws, regulations and administrative provisions necessary to comply with this Directive by 23 February They shall forthwith communicate to the Commission the text of those provisions.

When Member States adopt those measures, they shall contain a reference to this Directive or be accompanied by such a reference on the occasion of their official publication.

They shall also include a statement that references in existing laws, regulations and administrative provisions to the Directive repealed by this Directive shall be construed as references to this Directive. Member States shall determine how such reference is to be made and how that statement is to be formulated.

Member States shall communicate to the Commission the text of the main provisions of national law which they adopt in the field covered by this Directive. This Directive shall enter into force on the twentieth day following that of its publication in the Official Journal of the European Union.

Repealed Directive with list of its successive amendments. This site uses cookies to improve your browsing experience. Would you like to keep them?

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